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The 12 Cs of collective safeguarding
The 12 Cs Collective Safeguarding Responsibility Model

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Collective Safeguarding

The latest (17 May 2024) Academic Insight from the probation inspectorate is entitled Academic-Insight-The-‘12Cs-Collective-Safeguarding-Responsibility-Model.pdf ( and is written by Emma Ball and Professor Michelle McManus who are part of the Safeguarding and Violence Prevention Research Team within the Faculty of Health and Education at Manchester Metropolitan University.

Most readers will recognise that effective safeguarding can only be realistically achieved via a multi-agency approach, with the relevant agencies needing to provide the right support at the right time to address current harms and prevent future harms.

Recognising the lack of a consistent approach in measuring and evidencing multi-agency safeguarding practices, the authors developed the 12Cs Model using research evidence and consulting with key stakeholders.

The 12 Cs

The 12Cs sets out 12 key components which facilitate effective multi-agency safeguarding practice, encompassing distinct yet interlinked issues relating to ‘practitioners and agencies’ and those relating to ‘structures and processes’. Crucially, the model can be used to measure and evidence the effectiveness of multi-agency collaboration across all 12 components and determine the impact of any collective safeguarding efforts.

The aim is to build consistent understanding of good practices and challenges – at local, regional and national levels – with clear accountabilities and a shared commitment to future improvements. The key aim of the 12Cs is to facilitate and operationalise the transition from safeguarding being ‘everyone’s responsibility’ to an accountable ‘collective responsibility’.

The document draws on work creating a National Multi-Agency Safeguarding Performance Framework for Children in Wales. The infographic below highlights the five domains of safeguarding effectiveness, as well as the key questions required to be answered within each domain.

Practice and Policy

Whilst the Welsh performance framework focuses on safeguarding metrics (qualitative and quantitative) to evidence safeguarding effectiveness, the Collective Safeguarding Responsibility Model (12Cs) focuses on multi-agency practice and policy interventions and how to evidence and assess the effectiveness of these interventions, with clear accountability and commitment to future improvements.

The model sets out key factors which facilitate effective multi-agency safeguarding practice, based upon real examples of good practice across all 12 components. The model illustrates the enactment of ‘Safeguarding is Everyone’s Responsibility’ and offers a tool for safeguarding boards/partnerships, local authorities, and organisations to demonstrate the measures being adopted locally to facilitate, coordinate, and evidence the implementation of multi-agency safeguarding.

The model recognises the distinct yet interlinked relationship between issues relating to ‘practitioners and agencies’ and the ‘structures and processes’ which underpin practice as you can see in the infographic below.

The requirement of the 12Cs is to evidence any practice/policy/activity across all components to help identify and understand both areas of good practice and areas for improvement. This includes recording which partners contributed to outcomes within the multi-agency arrangements and which are then assigned specific actions in terms of the sustainability and/or improvement of components.

A local framework can then be used to measure effectiveness of any relevant practice or policy to:

  1. optimise multi-agency safeguarding and ensure that a collective endeavour is achieved and
  2. direct attention to components where further improvements are required.

Helpfully, the team behind the model has also created an accompanying self-assessment tool so that local agencies can jointly identify their strengths and areas that need improvement.

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One Response

  1. Have been trying to get social justice for five years.I 50 years old have severe adult Adhd Icd10F9 an official diagnosis was Diagnosed in 2018. I have the patient trying to use all the support strategy we have in Sussex but it is not put into action. I am still trying to save my life evidence and thousands of emails I’ve sent 31 case numbers my posts are even used on Google An example of Nicette yet my hand is still up waiting for all the appropriate support and intervention. I have needed along with the dual diagnosis policies.I Do not know where to turn Next as every team every title My severe severity along with my criteria and very serious issues Affecting my life, my health is fractured physically emotionally. Nobody seems to care enough to listen to me and see all the work I have done, which is a pulling and inhumane because the next stage will be an early demise through no fault of my own It is result of abandonment and neglect where my town should be using the appropriate rules and regulations to help support and save my life and send me to Phoenix futures Where My rights To obtain immediate admission using my criteria my age of 56 years old and the danger I have to endure every day of my life because I’m still left on un treated Ignored my mental health pain council health watch up to 200 teams have been Contacted by myself Is being done every one is My life meet an early demise as my health Fractured mentally emotionally, my criteria is more than enough to obtain my rights for immediate help Relief, reward and recognition.This still has not been met When is somebody coming to see the appalling inhumane experience? I am having to endure every day when They are So many support strategies and articles that everybody matters and everybody should count. I am a patient deserves somebody to me save my life and my knowledge to help others after I finally find One person Who can help me challenge everything I have done, but nobody seems to care enough to get involved in all the lawful live saving treatment I need . I am just out of ideas somebody can read this and contact me. Please discuss my life and my right to get well then please do.

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