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NEW PbR Resource Pack

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Payment by Results Resources

I have maintained a free Payment by Results resource pack since August 2011.

The pack was revised frequently as new reports, evaluations etc. became available with 105 updates until February 2015.

However, the pack was getting increasingly unwieldy to navigate so I have now restructured the pack to make it easier for readers to find what they need.

There are six sections to the new pack:

  1. Research
  2. Information about current PbR Schemes
  3. Social investment
  4. PbR Jargon
  5. New PbR Interactive Tool
  6. Comment and further information

In addition I blog regularly on PbR and related issues and you can find posts on this subject going back to 2011 here.


If you want a quick overview of Payment by Results, I strongly recommend that you read the 2015 National Audit Office report: Outcome-based payment schemes: the government’s use of payment by results. (I summarised this report in a series of blog posts, if you want a quicker read.) The research section contains most of the UK literature relating to PbR with some examples of international research too. The research information was compiled during the process of a literature review I constructed for a project funded by the Oak Foundation.

The draft literature review is available here for download and here to read online.

Please contribute your thoughts and comments – you can email me via the Contact Russell form in the sidebar (below and to the right on tablet, laptop or desktop, below if you’re reading this on your phone).

The literature reviewed is also available on a sector-by-sector basis. If you are interested in PbR’s application to a particular field, then clicking on the relevant link below will take you to the full reference of each piece of research, a link to the document if available freely online, and a one sentence summary. If I have summarised the study in a blog post, this will be linked too.

When the literature review is finalised, it too will be available in full online and will be free to download.

Information about current UK PbR schemes

PbR schemes now account for at least £15 billion of public spending in the UK.

This section contains information about the main PbR funded schemes currently running in the UK.

Social Investment

In addition to central and local government funded PbR schemes, there has been an interest in supporting innovative approaches to social problems via Social Impact Bonds with the success measured on an outcome or results basis.

This section provides resources around Social Impact Bonds and other forms of social investment.

PbR Jargon

Payment by results is a relatively simple concept but much of the jargon used can make its application seem complicated. This section contains explanations of the main terms in the form of an infographic.

New PbR Interactive Tool

Full details of a new PbR interactive tool Russell is developing to assist commissioners and providers to decide whether a payment by results approach might be an effective approach to commissioning a particular service. This is a open source project with participation welcomed and encouraged.

Comment and further information

In addition to the research listed and summarised elsewhere in this resource pack, PbR is often in the news with informal reports, articles and comments in the mainstream and professional press which are listed in this section.


Latest update 2 January 2016


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