Influencing offender behaviour
Rehabilitation by Design: Influencing offender behaviour is a recent (October 2016) report from Gleeds, a construction consultancy firm, which examines the way in which prison design can help reduce reoffending rates.
The report suggests that improved prison design could reduce assaults on staff by over 50%, significantly reduce the stress under which staff work, reduce overall lifecycle costs and see prisoners rehabilitated – cutting reoffending rates in England and Wales, which currently stand at some of the highest in Europe.
Compiled by a panel of expert criminologists and psychologists with input from charities, prisoners, victims and prison managers the new report examines how reforming management methods and prison design could significantly reduce reoffending rates.
It asserts that the primary aim for any new prison programme must be to address the huge reoffending rate and suggests this could be achieved through the use of innovative yet cost effective changes to the built environment. It goes on to investigate the ways in which behavioural policies and clever design principles have benefited prison systems abroad, and how these initiatives could be successfully implemented in the UK.
Scandinavian normalisation model
Much of the report draws on examples of prison architecture in Scandinavia and looks at ways of integrating rehabilitation and prison design. I reproduce some of the key concepts below:
Normalisation refers to the ways in which prison can, where possible, be made to reflect ‘normal’ life. For example, the ‘men’ (not prisoners) have ‘rooms’ (not cells) and staff are encouraged to knock before entering. Evidence suggests that more normalised prison environments can have genuinely positive impacts on offenders’ behaviour. From a design perspective then, prisons should seek to ‘design in’ opportunities for prison life to mirror normal life as far as possible.
In the Nordic countries, prisoners mostly live in units of up to 12 individuals who share a kitchen/communal area (much like University halls). They are responsible for collectively managing a budget, deciding what they will eat, ordering from a central prison kitchen and eating meals together (an important socialisation skill). Alongside this they receive education on nutrition and maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
Using technology effectively
Certain technologies allow an environment to appear more ‘normalised’ yet retain its security measures. For example, CCTV, discreet electronic wrist bands (which allow prisoners to be tracked anywhere in the prison), listening devices and Blackberry-style communication aids could enable immediate/enhanced intelligence reports while being relatively non-intrusive. Under the normalisation model, these types of technologies should always be balanced with prisoner responsibility and self-control.
Freedom of movement through design
The use of glazing rather than bars, infra-red sensors, a secure outer perimeter with few prominent barriers within prison grounds, and excellent sight lines will create a more humane and ‘normal’ environment. Freedom of movement around the prison should be as unrestricted as possible because people who do not adopt the label of ‘criminal’ are more likely to desist from crime.
In prisons, high internal walls, thick mesh fences, numerous gates, cage-like interiors and heavy, vandal-resistant furnishings all communicate negative messages that may become self-fulfilling (e.g. ‘you are animals’; ‘you are potential vandals’). Put simply, conventional
prison design can reinforce criminal and criminalised identities.
Providing opportunities for ‘agency’
Agency is best understood as a sense of control; the knowledge that ‘I’ have some power to impact my life, my future and my direct environment. Opportunities for agency allow people to see how actions have impact. Providing agency through design (such as personal control of lighting in cells) is a fundamental part of the normalisation model.
Using prison design to reduce anger, frustration and violence
Recreational activities are important not only because they promote wellbeing but also because they alleviate boredom, which can cause a variety of negative behaviours such as frustration, violence, self-harm and drug use. Moreover, the opportunity to engage in (and become attached to) positive and ‘normal’ recreation is often a powerful motivator to sustain behaviour change. Two specific approaches are recommended:
- Providing access to recreation helps prisoners to release tension, reduce anxiety and manage excess energy. Prisoners on some (e.g. anti-psychotic) medications may suffer side effects of excessive restlessness and need access to a variety of prosocial activities. However, prisoners also need to relax or have quiet times away from other prisoners.
- Designing passive and active spaces. When planning external spaces on prison sites, consideration should be given to both ‘passive’ spaces, where prisoners (and staff) can be still, tranquil and contemplative, and ‘active’ spaces that allow prisoners to keep fit and have time in the fresh air. The latter might include sports fields, courts for ballgames, gym equipment (e.g. bars for pull-ups), walking paths and jogging tracks. Activities that combine both passive and active elements such as yoga should be adequately catered for.
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