This section of the literature review contains studies which focus on the payment by results approach to international aid.

Currently, in the international development context, discussions of PbR often focus on government-to-government “results-based aid”, rather than the sorts of “results-based financing” which involves donors and service providers.

For each study, I provide the full reference, a link to the document if available freely online and a one sentence summary.

Studies are presented in order of publication; most recent first.

Studies which I regard as of high quality or of particular interest are highlighted in bold.

You can jump to the seven other sections of research here:


Bond for International Development (2014) Payment by results: what it means for UK NGOs. London

Excellent check list for charities considering entering PbR agreements in international aid sector.

Clist, P. & Dercon, S. (2014) 12 principles for payment by results in international development. London: Department for International Development.

Interesting, if contentious, principles which the authors claim should all will be met in order for countries to adopt a PbR approach to aid.